Ubuntu Server Installation

The process of installing Ubuntu server be it on a Virtual Machine or an actual system can seem daunting at first, but aside from the GUI that Ubuntu Desktop boast the process is the same.

A prerequisite to the installation will be your boot media, I tend to use a USB stick for this as the process of creating the device is much easier and does not require any blank disks. There are a number of applications online that allow for you to create a bootable device but I have found Rufus to be the simplest and easiest to use.

Once you have the bootable device all you need to do is insert it into the system and power it on.

Stage 2 –  Select Language to display the installation in

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Stage 2 – Choose the type of installation, for the purpose of this tutorial and all my personal usage we will select “Install Ubuntu Server”

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Stage 3 – Select installation language

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Stage 3 – Select Location

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Stage 4 – Configure the keyboard, for the purpose of this demo it will be done manually. But there is the option for automatic keyboard detection

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Stage 5 – Select the keyboard configuration that best suit you

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Stage 6 – The installation detects disks and other hardware

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Stage 7 – The installer will acquire additional components such as the setup of the clock

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Stage 8 – The Installer then goes on to detect the network hardware

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Stage 8 –  Select the host name for the system or just the name of the system. An example might be mail if your device is intended to be a mail server.

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Stage 9 – Type in the users full name (The Username will be automatically detected using the users first name but can be changed)

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Stage 10 – Select user password and retype for confirmation

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Stage 11 – Select if you want your home directory to be encrypted (I usually select no as I have limited requirement for it)

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Stage 12 –  Confirm the automatic detection of the clock settings (If it is incorrect by selecting no you will be given the option to select yours)

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Stage 13 – The installer then detects all other disks and Hardware

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Stage 14 – Selecting the disk size and creating partitions (For this installation we only need this to be installed as a sole OS as the rest of the machines will be running virtually from this host server) You can select use entire desk or set up LVM. The only real benefit of LVM is on the fly partition changes.

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Stage 15 – Select this disk to write changes to

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Stage 16 – Confirm that you wish to write the changes, it may warn you that you will lose all existing data

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Stage 17 – Final confirmation to write changes to disk

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Stage 19 – The installer will then install the system to the disk/partition you have your opted for

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Stage 20 – Installer is configuring the Apt source lists

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Stage 21 – At this stage of the installation you are given the option to set up a Proxy connection, if you do not require this leave it blank and continue

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Stage 22 – The installer is selecting and installing the required software

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Stage 23 – At this stage I would suggest selecting “Install security update automatically” but decided based on your own preferences

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Stage 24 – The software selection alow for you to pre install certain packages before the initial boot into the server. This could potently save time, but I personal add all my software after the installation so select manual package.

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Stage 25 – The installer will then install any selected softwares and clean up once it is done.

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Stage 26 – The installer then sets up and installs the GRUB boot loader

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Stage 27 – If this is the only OS on the system then you need not worry about just selecting yes.

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Stage 28 – Confirm and finish the installation

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After you have finished the installation the system will reboot and you should remove the bootable media from the system before it boots back up.

A good method on first logging into the new system is to run the commands below as there is a high change the system will inform you that there are a number of packages that require updating. You can run them all at once with example 1 or individual wit example 2.

Example 1

sudo apt-get updates; sudo apt-get upgrade; sudo apt-get dist-update

Example 2

sudo apt-get updates
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-update

I hope this helps when installing Ubuntu server, and if you enjoyed check out my Home Server Project

 

Passwords – Good Practise

Recently I have started to use a new password manager and got asked why I did not just use the same password across all of my accounts online. And this lead to me thinking that people as a rule don’t know effective and secure practice to follow when using online accounts and passwords.

Firstly you should always use a different password for each of your online accounts, this could be having one password with many variations such as different letters or symbols within it. This is necessary these days as it only takes one of the platforms you use to get hacked and you could potentially lose access to all of your accounts.

So Here Are Some Good Password Practice

Password Practise
The steps above are a fairly comprehensive guide to develop a highly secure password, by memorizing a sentence you have written, the arduous task of having to remember your new or complex password is reduces. you can also incorporate information about the account you are logging into meaning each accounts password will be a lot easier to remember.

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TrueKey is a password manager utility from Intel, and not only does it store information for online accounts you can also put in information like your social security number. This turns out to be very useful when paired with the mobile app. TrueKey also offers a feature that will generate a password for each account, and then log you straight in from the application. Meaning once you have secured all of your accounts you will only ever need 1 password to gain access to them.

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This final method is a touch old school I know. But in my opinion nothing can beat a trusty notebook (Granted I am probably one of a few that still like handwritten notes.) But the beauty of using a notebook is that you never have to worry about getting hacked and they can be carried on you at all times. Ok, so this option might not be the best if you tend to lose things but other than that its a sure fire way to manage multiple account details offline.
 

And hopefully if you follow some of the steps listed above you should be able to maximize your online security. As it is commonly known that the weakest point in most security systems is the human element. And that is because a lot of people have poor security knowledge or training. And this can be down to a number of thing such as age or use case.

But again hopefully this helps and you can share it with your friends and colleague to again increase everyone online safety.

How to Setup an Ethical Hacking Lab

I have recently been setting up a Virtual Lab to use with Kali Linux, to safely practice some pen-testing. And just messing around with some stuff, but the first thing I needed to do before I started was to create a safe environment for myself to practice in. I did this by using VMware

VMware is a virtual machine package allowing you to run virtual machines on your main devices, this can be used for a number of different things. Such as setting up a forensics test environment to discover how some application change the machines as they are used. Or to practice ethical hacking in a safe and secure environment. This can be important because unless you had permission to practice on a real network you would be in breach of a number off different laws depending on the country your in.

This means without having access to a functional lab you’d struggle to either practice away from your studies or to even get started without the worry of getting yourself into trouble. Due to these reasons I went about setting my self up a little lab using VMware. This was very straight forward and simple to-do. And now means I can practice to my hearts content without the risk of breaking any laws.And here is how I did it.

VMWare Downlaod Page
First thing you will need to do is go to the VMware website, and download the VMware Workstation Player (And don’t worry its free for personal use)
VMware Welcome Screen
Once you have downloaded and installed VMware, you will be greeted by this window. From here we are going to select “Create a New Virtual Machine”
Create VM 1
Once you have selected to create a new virtual machine, you will have to select the ISO you wish to install (I will leave a list of Linux ISO below)
Create VM 3
Once you have selected your operating system you will be asked to enter information about the user
Create VM 4
The next step is to decided where you want to save your VM files and to name the VM if you have multiple VM’s of the same operating system this is usefulto manage and keep track of them.
Create VM 5
You will then be asked to select how much storage you want the virtual machine to have, I usually leave it around the 20GB mark but you can do what ever best suites your needs. As I only use mine for testing purpose and never store any data on them.
Create VM 6
This is the final stage before powering on your VM, and is also the stage you are give the option to assign how much hardware the VM will receive.
Create VM 7
Once you have decided how many cores and how much ram your VM is going to require you need to go down to the networking option and select Host-Only. This means that you will only be able to communicate with machines on the same virtual network as yourself.
Create VM 8
And finally you should be able to power on your virtual machine and install the operating system. Once this machine boots up you will be in your own virtual network and can practice your hacking in a safe and secure environment.

 

So if you follow all of the steps above you will be able to repeat this step to install OS such as Kali Linux, this is my go to operating system for practicing ethical hacking as it has all the tools you could need and is used within industry meaning you will have access to tools that are used by professionals.

I found it useful to play around with some older operating systems to practice on first, this tended to be Windows XP or an older version of Ubuntu. This is due to the security features on Windows 10 for example and more advance making it more of a struggle to practice. I also found the easiest way to get a Windows XP key was to have a look around the house and try and find an old laptop that ran windows XP and use the serial off that. But if you don’t have any laying round the house you can buy them on eBay for about £30.

 

Linux ISO Downloads