Ubuntu Server Installation

The process of installing Ubuntu server be it on a Virtual Machine or an actual system can seem daunting at first, but aside from the GUI that Ubuntu Desktop boast the process is the same.

A prerequisite to the installation will be your boot media, I tend to use a USB stick for this as the process of creating the device is much easier and does not require any blank disks. There are a number of applications online that allow for you to create a bootable device but I have found Rufus to be the simplest and easiest to use.

Once you have the bootable device all you need to do is insert it into the system and power it on.

Stage 2 –  Select Language to display the installation in

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Stage 2 – Choose the type of installation, for the purpose of this tutorial and all my personal usage we will select “Install Ubuntu Server”

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Stage 3 – Select installation language

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Stage 3 – Select Location

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Stage 4 – Configure the keyboard, for the purpose of this demo it will be done manually. But there is the option for automatic keyboard detection

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Stage 5 – Select the keyboard configuration that best suit you

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Stage 6 – The installation detects disks and other hardware

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Stage 7 – The installer will acquire additional components such as the setup of the clock

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Stage 8 – The Installer then goes on to detect the network hardware

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Stage 8 –  Select the host name for the system or just the name of the system. An example might be mail if your device is intended to be a mail server.

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Stage 9 – Type in the users full name (The Username will be automatically detected using the users first name but can be changed)

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Stage 10 – Select user password and retype for confirmation

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Stage 11 – Select if you want your home directory to be encrypted (I usually select no as I have limited requirement for it)

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Stage 12 –  Confirm the automatic detection of the clock settings (If it is incorrect by selecting no you will be given the option to select yours)

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Stage 13 – The installer then detects all other disks and Hardware

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Stage 14 – Selecting the disk size and creating partitions (For this installation we only need this to be installed as a sole OS as the rest of the machines will be running virtually from this host server) You can select use entire desk or set up LVM. The only real benefit of LVM is on the fly partition changes.

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Stage 15 – Select this disk to write changes to

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Stage 16 – Confirm that you wish to write the changes, it may warn you that you will lose all existing data

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Stage 17 – Final confirmation to write changes to disk

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Stage 19 – The installer will then install the system to the disk/partition you have your opted for

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Stage 20 – Installer is configuring the Apt source lists

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Stage 21 – At this stage of the installation you are given the option to set up a Proxy connection, if you do not require this leave it blank and continue

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Stage 22 – The installer is selecting and installing the required software

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Stage 23 – At this stage I would suggest selecting “Install security update automatically” but decided based on your own preferences

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Stage 24 – The software selection alow for you to pre install certain packages before the initial boot into the server. This could potently save time, but I personal add all my software after the installation so select manual package.

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Stage 25 – The installer will then install any selected softwares and clean up once it is done.

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Stage 26 – The installer then sets up and installs the GRUB boot loader

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Stage 27 – If this is the only OS on the system then you need not worry about just selecting yes.

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Stage 28 – Confirm and finish the installation

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After you have finished the installation the system will reboot and you should remove the bootable media from the system before it boots back up.

A good method on first logging into the new system is to run the commands below as there is a high change the system will inform you that there are a number of packages that require updating. You can run them all at once with example 1 or individual wit example 2.

Example 1

sudo apt-get updates; sudo apt-get upgrade; sudo apt-get dist-update

Example 2

sudo apt-get updates
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-update

I hope this helps when installing Ubuntu server, and if you enjoyed check out my Home Server Project

 

Ubuntu 17.10 – First impression

If you are a Linux user then you will more than likely be aware that Ubuntu 17.10 is just around the corner and there are some massive changes coming. Unlike previous version of the Ubuntu that has come with the Unity Desktop environment, this time they are mixing it up and are going to begin using the Gnome desktop environment as standard. ( You can currently use either Ubuntu Gnome or install the Gnome environment alongside unity) 

At first hearing about this I had some reservations because I was very comfortable within the Unity environment and had very little experience with the Gnome desktop, bar what time I had spend using it within Kali Linux. But after reading into why they have decided to cut the Unity desktop it makes sense. I mean would you spend the time creating and maintains something more or less from scratch when it is deployed on a very small percentage of machine that run your OS.

But again when reading that Gnome was going to be the default environment I was somewhat disappointed because of the ascetics, for those of you who use Gnome you might like the cold gray and blue that it styles it self with. But I’m a huge fan of how warm and nice Unity looks. Well from some screen shots I have you can see that although they are using Gnome they have managed to add that Unity flair to it. 

Take a look in the images below and let me know what you think in the comment section, and check this space for more information on Ubuntu 17.10

(Images from omgubuntu.com)

What is Kali Linux?

In one of my recent post I explained and easy and safe way to set up your own Digital Forensics Lab and I mentioned a Linux based operating system by the name of Kali Linux. But what is it? and why would you use it in your virtual hacking lab?

Kali Linux is a Debian based operating system that uses the Gnome desktop environment, but unlike Ubuntu and Gnome Kali is packed full of usefully tools and applications for cyber security and digital forensics. Meaning that it is pretty much a one stop shop for just about any tools you could need, this makes things very convenient as you do not have to search around and download multiple applications they are already there in one place. It makes use of the Gnome menu system and groups all of the tools into named folders with the type of tool it is. This again means there is no hunting around when you have installed all of your tools.

There are a number off different use cases for a package such as Kali and the could be from a general curiosity to using it in industry as a professional. I personally use it along side my degree as is part of my course. But with it being free you can start using it when ever you want and with the many tutorial online it is really simple to get started and learn how to use it.

Because it uses the Gnome desktop it feels nice to use just like Ubuntu or Gnome, and it doesn’t feel like a tool your using. Granted a lot of people would be very unfamiliar with either of these Linux system but after a little bit it feels natural or like using any other graphical operating system. It also means that you could use it as a daily operating system if you were that way inclined. And don’t worry about requiring the latest computer hardware to run it because due to it being Linux based it doesn’t require all to much. Granted for certain task an application a little extra power wouldn’t go amiss but if you where to run it on 1 or 2 cores with 1 or 2 GB or ram it wouldn’t feel sluggish. And better yet you can run it live from a USB stick so you don’t even have to install it to benefit from it tools and features.

I tend to run it through a virtual machine, this is due to the safe lab that I mentioned before, and again it runs just like any other system within a VM. One benefit of doing this is that you can play around with the hardware the VM will supply it with. So if you have the hardware to spare you can build a beefy Kali System.

Tools Included in Kali

  • AirCrack
    • AirCrack is a WEP and WPA (Router Password) cracking tool, meaning that if you where preforming a penetration test on a company you may be able to gain access to there network through the WiFi.
  • Burp Suite
    • This package allows you to test the security of web applications, it does this by canning the application the searches for possible vulnerability. This is a very helpful tool for developers who wish to make there product as secrecy as possible.
  • Hydra
    • Hydra is a brute force password cracking application that on the surface looks limited and outdated. But in reality is a powerful tool allowing you to attack one or many users with either a single password or from a list of passwords.
  • John the Ripper
    • John the Ripper is another password cracking application that is command line based, although you can use a graphical version in the form of Jonny the ripper. It has been know for its speed at being able to crack passwords.
  • Maltego
    • This is one that you are very unlikely to have used or heard of and it is Maltego, this application is an effective relationship tracker that can work on social media platforms, Computer networks and websites. Once it scans the target location it produces a map using graphics making it clear and easy to understand.
  • Megasploit Framework
    • This is another application that works well for developers or system admin, Megasplot Framework runs simulated attacks on your network trying to find vulnerabilities. This allows you to patch or alter the vulnerability and make your system as secure as possible. And because it is all simulated there is no negative effects on the network its self.
  • Nmap
    • Is another command line application that has a graphical front end application as well this time its in the form of Zenamp. The purpose of this tool is to preform network discover scan and also security auditing.
  • Zed Attack Proxy
    • The Zed Atatck Proxy or ZAP is another penetration testing tool targeting web applications, It supports the Open Web Application Security Project or OWASP and is pack to the brim with functionality and features.
  • Sqlmap
    • Sqlmap is again a penetration testing tool but this time it is targeting SQL databases and looks for weakness in SQL injection, In some cases SQL injection can compromise an entire database. This could potentially leave the target in a whole heap of trouble.
  • Wireshark
    • Wireshark is a network protocol analyser, it boast some features such as being able to scan hundreds of protocols and preform offline analysis.

Other Similar Operating Systems

All of the above are aimed to provide a similar services to Kali Linux, and although I have limited hands on experience with each of them. I do know from others that they are good at what they do and that they should be considered as an alternative to Kali. Some of them are more tailored towards anonymity online while other are again forensics packages.

 

 

 

 

Reasons for Full Disk Encryption

To those who are unfamiliar with the concept of full disk encryption it is very simple, normal your computer or mobile devices will store data on a HDD (Hard Disk Drive) without the requirement for a password or any verification to access it bar maybe a password to log into the machine. And this is all fine and well in a lot of cases, your average user might simply use there laptop for basic web browsing or to use services such as Netflix or Gmail.

But for some users personal or sensitive information might be stored on the computer, meaning that if the devise was to be stolen then all of this information could be accessed and could potently have massive consequences. But by using full disk encryption it makes it almost impossible to gain access to the drive and therefore the information stored on it. The best part is you don’t need to be “tech-savy” or a “computer genius” to achieve this level of protection. And it is also a huge amount easier to achieve than it might sound.

Firstly there are a number off different methods to protect your computer with full disk encryption, this could be in the form of a downloaded application but most operating systems these days also allow the user the ability to use full disk encryptions.

Listed below are a few of the easiest options to secure your PC with full disk encryption

Bit Locker

Bit Locker is Microsoft Windows answer to full disk encryption, and was introduce with Windows Vista, but only on the higher tier packages such as professional and business. This could be a slight restriction to some users who have the home version of Windows.

But much it is a very effective and smooth process to encrypt your disk using Bit Locker, and with it being built it it is also very easy to set up and use. Unlike TrueCrypt this is ran through Microsoft, meaning constant updates and improvements to security and as a result making your data as safe as it can be.

TrueCrypt

Before Bit Locker was around full disk encryption was hard to come by, but there was an open source tool that gave users this ability. And this was TrueCrypt a very easy to use and secure full disk encryption software. That has unfortunately been unsupported since 2014. However your are still able to downloaded it, and even though it states on the website that you should migrate to Bit Locker I personally feel that for your average user that wants a little extra security it will still do an effective job. Largely due to the fact that if your devise was to get stolen, unless the thief was very technically able it would be incredibly challenging for anyone bar an expert to utilize the security vulnerabilities said to be within TrueCrypt.

TrueCrypt Disclaimer
Source – http://truecrypt.sourceforge.net/

 

Ubuntu Home Folder

If you are a Linux user then Ubuntu has you covered on the encrypted folder front, during the install process for Ubuntu you are given the option to password protect your home folder. If you opt to set up a password your home folder will then be encrypted requiring a password to access once logged into the system. It is really nice to see it in the installation stage as it means once your system has been installed everything is set up for you and you will not have to go and set it up after. Although if you use Ubuntu and didn’t do it during the start up, don’t worry about it because you can do it after while usng the system. There are guides to this on the official Ubuntu website.

 

In some cases there are different methods to unlock an encrypted drive, this could be done in a few different ways. One of the more popular is using a UBS drive as a decryption key. Meaning to access the encrypted drive the user will need to have access to the specific USB drive. This is very similar to using a key card to access the encrypted drive. In my opinion it is also a little bit more user friendly as you will not have to keep typing out what should hopefully be a lengthy and complicated password.

And one of my personal favourites is the use of biometrics such as a finger print scanner. These can be purchased online and with a little but of work in some cases, allows the user to have a scanner on the desk, and once a finger print is detected open the encrypted drive.

There are also other methods to be able to add secure sections to your files system, one I have a lot of experience with is use BitDefender. The BitDefender has an option to protect certain folders, Essentially setting up an encrypted location that requires a password to access, although it is not quite full disk encryption its a very easy and manageable way to secure some of your files. It also requires the user to select how much space is going to be need meaning that the area that you secure could be a large as you need.